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Old Cats — Caring for Senior Cats

On average, our senior cats are living much longer these days than they ever have thanks to advancements in veterinary care and medicine. Here, our Concord vets discuss senior cat care, physical and behavioral changes you may notice, and more. 

A Cat's Age in Human Years

Similar to their people, each cat experiences aging differently. Between the ages of 7 and 10 years many cats start to change physically. Most will have undergone significant change by about 12 years old. While many people subscribe to a common rule of thumb that one "cat year" is equivalent to 7 "human years", this isn't quite accurate.

Instead, our Concord vets advise cat owners to remember that a cat's first year is similar to the development of a 16-year-old human. 

By the time they've turned 2 years old, a cat is more similar to a human between 21 to 24 years old. After this point, each year for a cat is roughly equivalent to four human years (for example a 10-year-old cat = a 53-year-old human; a 12-year-old cat = a 61-year-old human; a 15-year-old cat = a 73-year-old human, etc.).  

Once they turn about 11 years old, cats are considered to be a "senior". If your kitty is over 15 years of age, you've got a "super senior". Caring for older cats? It may help to think of their age in human terms as it can help you to better understand potential health issues in relation to years lived. 

Aging Cats 

As they age, cats can experience many changes in their behavior and physicality, similar to humans. While aging itself is not a disease, keeping your vet updated on changes in your senior cat will help ensure they receive the most comprehensive geriatric veterinary care possible. Some changes to watch for include:

Physical Changes 

  • Grooming & Appearance - Cats may become less effective at grooming for a few reasons and develop oily or matted fur during the aging process. This may lead to odors, inflammation and the development of painful hair matting on the skin. Senior cats' claws can also become brittle, thick or overgrown, and will need more attention from their caregivers. You might also notice the iris (the colorful part of the eye) becomes lacy in appearance. The lens may also become slightly hazy. Though there is little evidence that a cat's sight is significantly impaired, several diseases, including those related to high blood pressure, can severely and irreversibly impair a cat's vision. 
  • Unintentional weight loss or gain. Older cats may lose weight. This can point to numerous problems, from kidney and heart disease to diabetes. Aging cats also commonly develop dental diseases, which can hinder eating and lead to weight loss and malnutrition. Oral health problems can also cause significant mouth pain. 
  • Physical activity & abilities. Degenerative joint disease or arthritis often becomes an issue for older cats who may have difficulty accessing water and food bowls, beds, and litter boxes. The need to jump or climb stairs may further hinder their ability to reach essential places. While changes in sleep patterns are a normal part of aging, a significant increase in sleep or depth of sleep may be cause for concern and be a reason to contact your vet. A marked increase in energy may point to hyperthyroidism and should also be looked at. Hearing loss is also a common health issue in geriatric cats for many reasons and should also be checked by your veterinarian. 

Behavioral changes

  • Cognitive issues. If you notice that your cat has started being confused by tasks or objects that are part of their daily routine, this may be a sign of issues with memory or cognition. Behavioral changes such as litterbox accidents or avoidance, new or increased human avoidance, wandering, excessive meowing, and seeming disorientated, are also potential signs of mental confusion or feline senility and should be examined by your vet.
  • Issues caused by disease. A cat may become aggressive due to pain from health issues like dental disease or arthritis, so keeping an eye on your cat's mood is important because cats tend to hide discomfort. Diseases and disorders affecting urination (e.g. diabetes, kidney failure) can cause an increase in litterbox usage, which may lead to cats eliminating in inappropriate areas. Cats that are experiencing mobility problems due to joint inflammation may have challenges accessing or even climbing into their litterbox, especially if stairs are involved. This may also lead to your senior cat eliminating in inappropriate places and should be addressed by a vet.

How to Care for a Senior Cat

When it comes to looking after a senior cat, they will have different care requirements than kittens or even middle-aged cats.  Your observations are some of the most important tools available to help keep your senior cat happy and healthy. Incorporating simple changes to your grooming, feeding and general interactions with your cat can be a low-pressure way to watch for any changes in your aging pet.

  • Grooming: Brushing your cat's fur, trimming their claws, and brushing their teeth are great ways to keep older cats clean and healthy, while also checking for changes in their fur, skin, nose, eyes, ears, and claws.
  • Nutrition: A lot of cats get heavy or even obese as they get older, which can be controlled with diet and activity if the weight gain is non-medical. Other weight issues include elderly cats being underweight, which may be caused by a variety of medical conditions and should be assessed by a veterinarian.
  • Home life: Older cats can be more sensitive to changes in routine or household, which can lead to stress. Patience and accommodations (extra affection, a favorite toy or blanket, a quiet room for them to stay in) go a long way to helping your senior cat adjust to upsetting changes. Don't forget to keep playing with your cat as they age; mental and physical stimulation is beneficial for their well-being.
  • Vet care: Because cats are adept at hiding illness until it is advanced or severe, it's important to take them regularly to the vet for wellness checks even if they seem perfectly healthy. Your veterinarian will also be able to monitor any conditions that your senior cat may have, and catch any potential or emerging issues early when they're more treatable. their behavior and health.

Vet Care for Senior Cats

Your knowledge of your cat and your observations are an important resource for your vet, as are regular wellness examinations. Depending on your cat's needs (e.g. if they have a medical condition), your vet may suggest increasing the frequency of physical evaluations. A wellness examination of a senior cat includes the vet checking the cat's weight, skin & fur condition, organ systems, and behavior, and running diagnostic tests for certain conditions that are common in older felines.

The combination of homecare and cooperative veterinary care is a great way to help ensure your senior cat has a healthier, happier life with you and your family.

Note: The advice provided in this post is intended for informational purposes and does not constitute medical advice regarding pets. For an accurate diagnosis of your pet's condition, please make an appointment with your vet.

Looking for more information about caring for your senior cat or do you have specific questions about their health? Contact Four Corners Veterinary Hospital to book an appointment for your older feline friend.

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